Mustang valley

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Mustang valley Auch unter Ablenkung casino bonus mit einzahlung ich alles fest im Blick …. Urheber- und Leistungsschutzrechte Die auf dieser Website veröffentlichten Inhalte unterliegen dem deutschen Urheber- und Leistungsschutzrecht. Anlässlich seines Geburtstages möchten wir ihn ein wenig in den Vordergrund heben. Was wird aus ihnen werden? Iman ist Mama mit Leib und Hart am limit isle of man — die Zwerge sind pummelig, rund, satt und wohlig zufrieden. Gefühlt war Iman gerade noch selbst ein Teenie — und casino video slots for free hat sie schon das Alter, selbst Welpen zu bekommen. Was wird das Leben für sie bereit halten?
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The last official and later unofficial king raja or gyelpo of Mustang was Jigme Dorje Palbar Bista — , Bista succeeded his father Angun Tenzing Tandul in , and whose lineage dates back to Ame Pal, who founded the Kingdom of Lo six and half century earlier, [34] [35] He died in 16 December after living a retired life largely in Kathmandu since when Nepal abolished its own monarchy.

One fascinating feature of the district are thousands of cliff dwellings, some highly inaccessible. In , explorers from the United States , Italy and Nepal discovered ancient Buddhist decorative art and paintings, manuscripts and pottery in the Mustang caves near Lo Manthang , dating back to the 13th century.

They also recovered reams of invaluable manuscripts containing writings from both the Bon religion and Buddhism , some of which were illuminated.

According to theory, they may date back to 8—10, BCE when Mustang was much greener. In , a shepherd discovered a collection of 55 cave paintings near the village depicting the life of the Buddha.

The paintings show Newari influence, dating to approximately the 13th century, and also contain Tibetan scripts executed in ink, silver and gold and pre- Christian era pottery shards.

Explorers found stupas , decorative art and paintings depicting various forms of the Buddha , often with disciples, supplicants and attendants, with some mural paintings showing sub-tropical themes containing palm trees , billowing Indian textiles and birds.

Before the VDCs there was the system of village community councils from to , which forms the lowest strata of local administration. Any endowment of such entitlement was the council's prerogative.

All households of the village had representation in the council. A gemba council leader , chosen from any male member of the council between 18 and 60 years of age, was appointed on yearly rotation.

The council settled disputes, called for community work when needed, and distributed rights and responsibilities to community members.

Individual households managed their private farms, while the council managed the community farm-system.

Traditionally, the Mustang district has been divided into four social and geographical regions. From south to north they are: Thak Satsae also known as lower Thak Khola , Panchgaon upper Thak Khola and Baragaon mostly considered part of Thak Khola, sometime called lower Lo in Lower Mustang and Lo Tsho Dyun or also known simply as Lo in Upper Mustang , [3] [53] [17] though it is becoming increasingly difficult to distinguish between areas along social lines as different castes and ethnic people started to live all over the region.

The area, extending from Ghasa in south to district headquarter Jomsom in the north, is known as Thak Khola "Thak River".

The area was ruled by a Tibetan ruler till , when it was included in Nepal. The languages spoken by Thakalis fall in Tibeto-Burman category, and they believe in Buddhism.

They were distributed across four VDCs: Lete , Kowang , Kunjo and Tukuche [16] [53] [54] [17]. Various kinds of liquor, Jam and Jelly made up of apple, apricot and plum are very popular commodities of this area.

Panchgaon "five villages" lies between the trading town of Tukche and the pilgrimage site of Muktinath.

One of the indispensable sources for the study of the history of the Mustang are the village records or bem-chag kept in the five original villages including Thini, Syang, Marpha , Chairo and Cimang.

The four clans are Hirachan, Lalchan, Jwarchan and Pannachan. But the people from Thini and Syang write their surname as only Thakali to identify by themselves.

According to the informants from Thini, they do not categorize those people who are originated from Marpha and Chhairo as original Thakali.

They even do not have socio-religious relationships such as marriage and other local religious activities with Marpha and Chhairo.

These villages were spread across four VDCs south of Lochhoden: Kagbeni , Muktinath , Jhong and Chhusang. Kagbeni is on the well-traveled route to the pilgrimage site of Muktinath.

The Muktinath temple is located at an altitude of 3, meters near Ranipauwa village at the foot of the Thorong La mountain pass in Muktinath Valley.

It is considered to be th among the available Divya Desam premium temples considered sacred by the Sri Vaishnava sect.

The ancient name of this place in Sri Vaishnava literature is Thiru Saligramam. The temple houses the Saligram shila , considered to be the naturally available form of the Hindu Godhead Sriman Narayan.

Although the temple has a Vaishnav origin, it is also revered in Buddhism. The people of restricted northern areas of Mustang are known as Lopa. But, they use surname like Bista and Gurung outside their lands.

The restricted area, lying between Tibetan border and Ghemi village, encompasses the historic kingdom of Lo Tsho Dyun "seven districts of Lo" in local Tibetan dialect of Loke.

The palace and other structures within the wall were built by Ame Pal, the first king of Lo, during the period of 15th century.

His lineage is recognized as the royal family of Mustang. They were spread across six VDCs: Lo Manthang , a Village Development Committee with people living in households, [62] is the capital of the old kingdom of Lo, which encompasses the northern two thirds of the district and known as Upper Mustang.

Though the capital of the district is Jomsom , the traditional Tibetan-style locales lie north of Kagbeni. The old capital Lo Manthang, a square-walled town on the Plain of Prayers , is the residence of the present king.

Jampa Lhakhang or Jampa Gompa, the oldest, built in the early 15th century and also known as the "God house"; Thubchen Gompa, a huge, red assembly hall and gompa built in the late 15th century and located just southwest of Jampa Gompa; Chodey Gompa, now the main city gompa; and the Choprang Gompa, which is popularly known as the "New Gompa".

However, there are a number of small streams, where willows grow along with wheat, potatoes and barley. Lo Manthang is the socio-cultural and political center of the ethnic Lopa people, the original inhabitants of Mustang.

The roofs are extremely uniform and smooth; and on each corner, a small square is constructed so that prayer flags may be hung there. Most houses are built close together and have no windows, only holes in the walls to protect against the high speed winds that race up the mountains.

A Lopa home almost never built toward the South because of the fierceness of these winds. This is a drawback in summertime as the houses grow very hot due to a lack of appropriate ventilation.

Hence, people often sleep on the terraces during the summer to escape the heat. The Lopa are primarily farmers, shepherds, or merchants.

In , Tibetans started crossing the border and encroaching on the small plots of pastureland Lopas used to feed their sheep, yaks, donkeys and mules, causing Lopa wealth to deteriorate further.

Socially, the They are divided into three groups, one of which contains those of royal heritage. Rules of society are based on the values of respect and honour.

The structure of their families is also based on these and other traditions. Sometimes marriages are made by parental agreement, other times by capture or elopement.

Like other people who live in harsh terrains, they are generous and kind, and also are shrewd businesspersons.

When he does, the next son must become a Buddhist monk. Lower Kali Gandaki valley forms the border to demarcate east and west for the distribution of flora and fauna of Mustang.

It is rich in both temperate and trans-Himalayan biodiversity with flora and fauna that are most common to those that are highly rare.

Mustang is rich in trans-Himalayan biodiversity, where five species of zooplankton, seven nematode species, two mollusc species, one annelid species, 25 insect species seven aquatic insects and 18 butterfly species , one spider species, 11 amphibian species, eight lizard species, five snake species, bird species and 29 mammal species have been recorded.

Five butterfly species, extinct mollusk species shaligram , two frog species, one reptile species, two bird species Tibetan sandgrouse and Eurasian eagle-owl , and seven mammal species have only been recorded in Mustang in Nepal.

Mustang is the habitat for snow leopard , musk deer , Tibetan wild ass and Tibetan gazelle. The only native fish species, recorded at m above sea level at Ghami Khola stream in Dhami , has been identified as the highest elevation fish in Nepal.

Vegetation of Mustang District is of the steppe type and consists of grasslands interspersed with scrub.

Cold desiccating winds, a short growing season, low precipitation and cold air temperatures limit the standing biomass produced from the steppe vegetation.

Scrub is dominated by Juniperus squamata on gentle slopes, whereas steeper slopes are dominated by Caragana gerardiana , Chrysosphaerella brevispina , and Rosa sericea , as well various species of Ephedra and Lonicera.

Vegetation above 5, metres consists mainly of Rhododendron anthopogon , as well as Potentilla biflora and various species of Saxifraga.

Little or no vegetation is found above 5, metres. Forest cover ends near Jomsom and is very limited in Upper Mustang, which falls in the Alpine climatic area.

Mustang is rich in medicinal and aromatic plants with very high economic and ethnomedicinal values. Local people use a number of plants for food, spices, fibre, medicine, fuel, dye, tannin, gum, resin, religious purposes, roofing materials, handicrafts, etc.

These plants included 49 vascular plants and 2 fungi species from 92 genera. These plants, including different parts of the same plant, were used to treat different ailments.

The district is divided into Upper and Lower Mustang. The northern two-thirds of the district Upper Mustang or former Lo Kingdom , Tibetan language and culture prevails, is home to the Lopa , a Bhotiya people.

The southern third or the Thak is the homeland of Thakali people who speak Thakali dialects and have a synthesis of Tibetan and Nepalese culture.

The main languages spoken are Bhote , Sherpa, and Nepali. As one moves southward, the Tibetan culture becomes less evident.

Inhabitants of mid-Mustang of Baragaon speak both Tibetan and a language similar to Thakali. There are 3, households in the district.

Magar, Thakuri and other account 3. Gurung and Thakali are the dominant ethnic groups in Mustang district's population. Which makes it the second least populated district, and with a population density of 4 per km 2 , also the second least densely populated district.

Among the Gurung , Thakkali and Bhote people, there also were 33 foreigners — 13 Indians, 3 Chinese, and 17 from other countries. Age of first marriage for Mustang people are varied — 15—19 Years 1,, 20—24 Years 3,, 25—29 Years 1,, and others 1, Total married 7, In , The population of Mustang was divided between For 14, people Mustang district had a total of 17 health posts, with a health post to population ration of 1: The Upper Mustang was a restricted demilitarized area until which makes it one of the most preserved regions in the world, with a majority of the population still speaking traditional Tibetic languages.

Tibetan culture has been preserved by the relative isolation of the region from the outside world. The southern third of the district is called Thak and is the homeland of the Thakali , who speak the Thakali language , and whose culture combines Tibetan and Nepalese elements.

Life in Mustang revolves around tourism, animal husbandry and trade. Mustang's status as a kingdom ended in when its suzerain Kingdom of Nepal became a republic.

The influence of the outside world, especially China , is growing and contributing to rapid change in the lives of Mustang's people. It is in the rain shadow of the Annapurna and Dhaulagiri ranges.

The population of the whole Mustang District in was 14,, spread between three towns and approximately thirty smaller settlements. The inhabitants are either Thakalis , Gurung or, in traditional Mustang, primarily Tibetan.

The tough conditions cause a large winter migration into lower regions of Nepal. The administrative centre of Mustang District is at Jomsom eight kilometers south of Kagbeni which has had an airport since and has become the main tourist entry point since Mustang was opened to western tourism in The main hydrographic feature of Mustang is the Gandaki River.

The river runs southward towards Nepal Terai , bisecting Mustang. Routes paralleling the river once served as a major trade route between Tibet and India , especially for salt.

Part of the river valley in the southern Mustang District forms the Kali Gandaki Gorge , by some measures the deepest gorge in the world.

April Frühling lässt sein blaues Band …. Inhalte und Rechte Dritter sind dabei als solche gekennzeichnet. Oktober … und aus Kindern werden Leute. Ich habe Charme, Charisma, Einfühlungsvermögen und alle nötigen Eigenschaften um mal so ein richtiger kleiner Streber zu werden. Was wird aus ihnen werden? Ich habe Mut, Offenheit um die Welt zu entdecken, bin bemüht mein Umfeld glücklich zu machen und einfach alle zufrieden zu stellen. Auch unter Ablenkung habe ich alles fest im Blick …. Er ist bis heute unerreicht in seinem Status als Vererber und ist in fast jeder deutschen silver Linie zu finden auch wenn er nach der 5. Mann ……ich bin echt froh, dass sie mich einfach nur MO rufen …. In absoluter Ruhe hat sie so souverän wie erhofft und instinktsicher wie gewünscht ihre ersten Welpen zur Welt gebracht. Was wird das Leben für sie bereit halten? Und dann fühle ich mich wie die gute Fee bei Dornröschen …. Ich darf ab dem

In , a shepherd discovered a collection of 55 cave paintings near the village depicting the life of the Buddha. The paintings show Newari influence, dating to approximately the 13th century, and also contain Tibetan scripts executed in ink, silver and gold and pre- Christian era pottery shards.

Explorers found stupas , decorative art and paintings depicting various forms of the Buddha , often with disciples, supplicants and attendants, with some mural paintings showing sub-tropical themes containing palm trees , billowing Indian textiles and birds.

Before the VDCs there was the system of village community councils from to , which forms the lowest strata of local administration.

Any endowment of such entitlement was the council's prerogative. All households of the village had representation in the council.

A gemba council leader , chosen from any male member of the council between 18 and 60 years of age, was appointed on yearly rotation.

The council settled disputes, called for community work when needed, and distributed rights and responsibilities to community members. Individual households managed their private farms, while the council managed the community farm-system.

Traditionally, the Mustang district has been divided into four social and geographical regions. From south to north they are: Thak Satsae also known as lower Thak Khola , Panchgaon upper Thak Khola and Baragaon mostly considered part of Thak Khola, sometime called lower Lo in Lower Mustang and Lo Tsho Dyun or also known simply as Lo in Upper Mustang , [3] [53] [17] though it is becoming increasingly difficult to distinguish between areas along social lines as different castes and ethnic people started to live all over the region.

The area, extending from Ghasa in south to district headquarter Jomsom in the north, is known as Thak Khola "Thak River". The area was ruled by a Tibetan ruler till , when it was included in Nepal.

The languages spoken by Thakalis fall in Tibeto-Burman category, and they believe in Buddhism. They were distributed across four VDCs: Lete , Kowang , Kunjo and Tukuche [16] [53] [54] [17].

Various kinds of liquor, Jam and Jelly made up of apple, apricot and plum are very popular commodities of this area. Panchgaon "five villages" lies between the trading town of Tukche and the pilgrimage site of Muktinath.

One of the indispensable sources for the study of the history of the Mustang are the village records or bem-chag kept in the five original villages including Thini, Syang, Marpha , Chairo and Cimang.

The four clans are Hirachan, Lalchan, Jwarchan and Pannachan. But the people from Thini and Syang write their surname as only Thakali to identify by themselves.

According to the informants from Thini, they do not categorize those people who are originated from Marpha and Chhairo as original Thakali.

They even do not have socio-religious relationships such as marriage and other local religious activities with Marpha and Chhairo.

These villages were spread across four VDCs south of Lochhoden: Kagbeni , Muktinath , Jhong and Chhusang.

Kagbeni is on the well-traveled route to the pilgrimage site of Muktinath. The Muktinath temple is located at an altitude of 3, meters near Ranipauwa village at the foot of the Thorong La mountain pass in Muktinath Valley.

It is considered to be th among the available Divya Desam premium temples considered sacred by the Sri Vaishnava sect.

The ancient name of this place in Sri Vaishnava literature is Thiru Saligramam. The temple houses the Saligram shila , considered to be the naturally available form of the Hindu Godhead Sriman Narayan.

Although the temple has a Vaishnav origin, it is also revered in Buddhism. The people of restricted northern areas of Mustang are known as Lopa. But, they use surname like Bista and Gurung outside their lands.

The restricted area, lying between Tibetan border and Ghemi village, encompasses the historic kingdom of Lo Tsho Dyun "seven districts of Lo" in local Tibetan dialect of Loke.

The palace and other structures within the wall were built by Ame Pal, the first king of Lo, during the period of 15th century.

His lineage is recognized as the royal family of Mustang. They were spread across six VDCs: Lo Manthang , a Village Development Committee with people living in households, [62] is the capital of the old kingdom of Lo, which encompasses the northern two thirds of the district and known as Upper Mustang.

Though the capital of the district is Jomsom , the traditional Tibetan-style locales lie north of Kagbeni. The old capital Lo Manthang, a square-walled town on the Plain of Prayers , is the residence of the present king.

Jampa Lhakhang or Jampa Gompa, the oldest, built in the early 15th century and also known as the "God house"; Thubchen Gompa, a huge, red assembly hall and gompa built in the late 15th century and located just southwest of Jampa Gompa; Chodey Gompa, now the main city gompa; and the Choprang Gompa, which is popularly known as the "New Gompa".

However, there are a number of small streams, where willows grow along with wheat, potatoes and barley. Lo Manthang is the socio-cultural and political center of the ethnic Lopa people, the original inhabitants of Mustang.

The roofs are extremely uniform and smooth; and on each corner, a small square is constructed so that prayer flags may be hung there. Most houses are built close together and have no windows, only holes in the walls to protect against the high speed winds that race up the mountains.

A Lopa home almost never built toward the South because of the fierceness of these winds. This is a drawback in summertime as the houses grow very hot due to a lack of appropriate ventilation.

Hence, people often sleep on the terraces during the summer to escape the heat. The Lopa are primarily farmers, shepherds, or merchants.

In , Tibetans started crossing the border and encroaching on the small plots of pastureland Lopas used to feed their sheep, yaks, donkeys and mules, causing Lopa wealth to deteriorate further.

Socially, the They are divided into three groups, one of which contains those of royal heritage. Rules of society are based on the values of respect and honour.

The structure of their families is also based on these and other traditions. Sometimes marriages are made by parental agreement, other times by capture or elopement.

Like other people who live in harsh terrains, they are generous and kind, and also are shrewd businesspersons. When he does, the next son must become a Buddhist monk.

Lower Kali Gandaki valley forms the border to demarcate east and west for the distribution of flora and fauna of Mustang.

It is rich in both temperate and trans-Himalayan biodiversity with flora and fauna that are most common to those that are highly rare. Mustang is rich in trans-Himalayan biodiversity, where five species of zooplankton, seven nematode species, two mollusc species, one annelid species, 25 insect species seven aquatic insects and 18 butterfly species , one spider species, 11 amphibian species, eight lizard species, five snake species, bird species and 29 mammal species have been recorded.

Five butterfly species, extinct mollusk species shaligram , two frog species, one reptile species, two bird species Tibetan sandgrouse and Eurasian eagle-owl , and seven mammal species have only been recorded in Mustang in Nepal.

Mustang is the habitat for snow leopard , musk deer , Tibetan wild ass and Tibetan gazelle. The only native fish species, recorded at m above sea level at Ghami Khola stream in Dhami , has been identified as the highest elevation fish in Nepal.

Vegetation of Mustang District is of the steppe type and consists of grasslands interspersed with scrub. Cold desiccating winds, a short growing season, low precipitation and cold air temperatures limit the standing biomass produced from the steppe vegetation.

Scrub is dominated by Juniperus squamata on gentle slopes, whereas steeper slopes are dominated by Caragana gerardiana , Chrysosphaerella brevispina , and Rosa sericea , as well various species of Ephedra and Lonicera.

Vegetation above 5, metres consists mainly of Rhododendron anthopogon , as well as Potentilla biflora and various species of Saxifraga.

Little or no vegetation is found above 5, metres. Forest cover ends near Jomsom and is very limited in Upper Mustang, which falls in the Alpine climatic area.

Mustang is rich in medicinal and aromatic plants with very high economic and ethnomedicinal values.

Local people use a number of plants for food, spices, fibre, medicine, fuel, dye, tannin, gum, resin, religious purposes, roofing materials, handicrafts, etc.

These plants included 49 vascular plants and 2 fungi species from 92 genera. These plants, including different parts of the same plant, were used to treat different ailments.

The district is divided into Upper and Lower Mustang. The northern two-thirds of the district Upper Mustang or former Lo Kingdom , Tibetan language and culture prevails, is home to the Lopa , a Bhotiya people.

The southern third or the Thak is the homeland of Thakali people who speak Thakali dialects and have a synthesis of Tibetan and Nepalese culture.

The main languages spoken are Bhote , Sherpa, and Nepali. As one moves southward, the Tibetan culture becomes less evident.

Inhabitants of mid-Mustang of Baragaon speak both Tibetan and a language similar to Thakali. There are 3, households in the district.

Magar, Thakuri and other account 3. Gurung and Thakali are the dominant ethnic groups in Mustang district's population. Which makes it the second least populated district, and with a population density of 4 per km 2 , also the second least densely populated district.

Among the Gurung , Thakkali and Bhote people, there also were 33 foreigners — 13 Indians, 3 Chinese, and 17 from other countries. Age of first marriage for Mustang people are varied — 15—19 Years 1,, 20—24 Years 3,, 25—29 Years 1,, and others 1, Total married 7, In , The population of Mustang was divided between For 14, people Mustang district had a total of 17 health posts, with a health post to population ration of 1: While that is better than the national average of 1: Jomsom has the only hospital.

Because of low access to facilities and other socio-cultural factors, for most people in Mustang, traditional herbal medicines are the popular mode of medical care and Amchis traditional Tibetan healers are the local medical experts.

Most people here have deep faith in the Amchis. Amchis have a unique method of maintaining quality of the medicine. They collect medicinal plants always on their own, because only they have experience extensive enough to identify the right plants.

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Schwabensieger Wertingen Geboren am: Oregon Wrangler of Mustang Valley. Anka von der Goldgasse. Velvet from the Rhine Valley. Europajugendsieger Ingolstadt Weltsieger Straubing G eboren am: Clara from the Rhine Valley.

Priska from the Rhine Valley.

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